Mr Glen Alleman
ABSTRACT: PGCS Masterclass
Strategies to detect, prevent, and correct causes of project stress and failure
As Australia embarks on an unprecedented level of capital expenditure on major projects across multiple domains in Federal and State Governments including Defence and infrastructure across multiple sectors, including roads and rail projects in both the major capital cities and regional areas, it is timely to be reminded that major projects are perilous undertakings with the risks of project stress (defined and cost and/or schedule overrun) and failure both ever present, requiring ongoing monitoring to prevent and correct.
This master class provides a rare opportunity to learn from the latest United States research on the primary causes and contributors to project stress and failure and the latest strategies and tools and techniques which can be implemented to prevent and correct these issues, significantly improving the probability of successful project delivery outcomes.
The foundation of this masterclass is research, principles, and practices developed at the US Institute for Defence Analyses, a Federally Funded Research and Development Centre (FFRDC) which analysed root causes of project and program stress and failure for US Department of Defence programs. While this research informs the policy advice provided to the US Defence Department Office of Performance Assessments and Root Cause Analyses (PARCA) focused at improving the probability of project and program success, the lessons learned can be applied to all projects and programs across government and industry.
The attendees will learn the principles and practices needed to identify the primary causes of project stress and failure as shown in the diagram below.
The attendees will gain hands on experience to prepare them with the skills to identify:
- The primary causes and contributing factors which lead to project stress and failure,
- The strategies needed to prevent project stress in the first place (preventative actions)
- The strategies, tools, and techniques used to successfully prevent and correct project issues creating risk of stress or failure.
Master class attendees will return to work with the knowledge and hands on experience needed to identify and implement preventative and corrective actions to address the primary causes and contributors to project stress and failure increasing the probability of successful delivery outcomes for projects and programs in their domains.
Professor Charles Keating
ABSTRACT: PGCS Masterclass
A practical guide to implementing Complex Systems Governance concepts on projects
The purpose of this workshop is to provide a hands-on experience for Project Management (PM) professionals for application of Complex System Governance (CSG) concepts. CSG is a new and novel approach to improve performance through purposeful design, execution, and evolution of essential system functions. These functions sustain project performance in the midst of external turbulence and internal flux. CSG addresses the 'messes' and 'wicked problems' that are the by-product of modern projects and continue to overwhelm PM practitioners. Application of CSG for PM is examined to: (1) appreciate and map the complex environment faced by modern PM, (2) discover sources of 'deep system' project failure modes that ultimately produce schedule delays, cost overruns, and missed performance targets, (3) explore the 'systems' basis for those failure modes, and (4) develop responsive and feasible systems-based strategies to preclude failure modes in the design, execution, and development of complex projects.
The workshop objectives are:
(1) Examine the nature and implications of the complex problem domain facing PM professionals.
(2) Explore CSG as a systems-based response to better deal with increasingly complex projects.
(3) Apply CSG methods to discover 'deep system' failure modes in design, execution, or development of projects.
(4) Determine feasible strategic responses to preclude or mitigate CSG failure modes in complex projects.
As a result of the workshop, participants will be better prepared and equipped to apply CSG concepts and tools. This will permit identification and assessment of systems-based project failure modes, mitigation of negative consequences, and identification of feasible actions improve project performance through design, execution, or development modifications.
Ms Val Jonas
ABSTRACT: PGCS Masterclass
Leading the way on risk intelligent decision making (risk vision, framework and engagement)
As we embark on ever more challenging programmes and complex projects, in a world that can change in the blink of an eye, it's imperative we get better (and faster) at decision making. We no longer have time to gather data and prevaricate before choosing a way forward. We need information at our fingertips and the confidence to take the right path ahead.
Despite our increasing expectations that people be innovative and embrace agile methodologies, we nonetheless fail to provide the structures and skills required to handle the risks (or exploit the opportunities) they will inevitably encounter. Without a mature approach to risk, your decisions will most likely be hasty and ill-thought through - you'll be walking a tightrope.
Of course, one-size-doesn't-fit-all when it comes to risk. It depends on your objectives, the context you're working in, your team capabilities, resource availability and so on. Therefore, you need to know how to put together a sound structure for risk, that supports intelligent decision making based on your specific needs. Having created the structure, you then need to know how to communicate the value of risk in supporting successful outcomes.
You will learn how to design practical structures that support sound risk-intelligent decision making. Attendees will work together to gain experience in
- creating a top-down risk vision to match specific objectives
- designing a risk framework that cuts across silos, connecting risk across the organisation
- devising risk engagement strategies to ensure everyone knows what is expected of them
The goal is to ensure the whole team is focused on achieving successful outcomes, instead of being bogged down in myopic short-term problems.
You will understand how to communicate the value of risk and know how to embed risk intelligent decision making tools and techniques into your organisation, making your team stronger together and motivated behind common vision and goals.
Mr Oliver Baker
Suppliers – Harmonising the Relationship
Is it possible to operate as One Team with a Supplier? Where collaborative working is the norm, honesty and transparency exists at all levels, there is a shared ownership of outputs and communication is frequent and regular.
The Astute Class Submarine Programme can be classified as a Mega Project by any conceivable measure and is demonstrably one of the most complex engineering projects within the United Kingdom. The Programme, in delivering a fleet of 7 nuclear-powered attack submarines to the Royal Navy, plays a vital role in the UK's ability to defend itself, economy, culture and general way of life.
During this presentation, set against the backdrop of the Astute Programme, I will provide an overview of the lessons learned in operating a joint project controls model and how these lessons can be applied to a different types of projects, across a range of sectors.
Looking through the Project Controls Lens the presentation will cover:
- The characteristics of a One Team operating model and the benefits of the approach
- How to set expectations, including requirements, negotiations and commercial outcomes
- Methods for building and subsequently strengthening the working relationship
- Real examples of resolving issues together
- Project Controls disciplines and associated outputs that are ripe for collaboration
Ms Loretta Bayliss
The future of project controls in an integrated world, BIM and beyond
The technology and software available to support project and program managers is evolving at an ever increasing rate. This presentation will look at current developments and future trends and how they will affect our work as project managers.
Mr Shane Fairweather
Managing for Delivery: Insights from a Senior Leader on program management and controls
A Senior Leader's perspective on the importance of controls as an element of program management. The early consideration and implementation of controls assists in navigating and overcoming complexity, and establishes mechanisms to easily address emerging issues throughout program delivery. This approach to controls is critical in the sense-making for leaders and supports best practice for the management of complex programs.
Mr Glen Alleman
Strategies to detect, prevent, and correct causes of project stress and failure
Cost and schedule growth and technical shortfalls for Defence and Government programs are created when there are:
1. Unrealistic technical performance expectations
2. Unrealistic cost and schedule estimates
3. Inadequate risk assessments
4. Unanticipated technical issues
All based on poorly performed and ineffective risk management.
This presentation shows how to correct or prevent these conditions by applying the principles of Systems Engineering and Program Management to increase the probability of Program success.
Ms Mandy Hill
Knowing how and when to apply an Agile approach
The Digital Transformation Agency's Service Standard prescribes an agile approach to project delivery, and the Government is pushing for an iterative and incremental style for the delivery of value. Reconciling these requirements with the need to plan for the delivery of the outcomes committed to in the business cases can be difficult. Mandy's presentation will outline a road map for navigating the complex decisions needed to balance a fully agile approach with the need to work within prescribed budgets, based on successfully delivering many projects across government.
Mr Jonathan Jacobs
Enterprise Portfolio Management: What good looks like based on TBH's cross-sector experience
Australia is currently witnessing unprecedented levels of investment in major projects across multiple industry sectors, including Defence. This has contributed to renewed interest in enterprise portfolio management with a view to ensuring risks and opportunities are identified and addressed, executive oversight is facilitated, and objectives are achieved.
TBH has decades of cross sector project, program and portfolio management experience and this presentation aims to provide broad insights into what "good" looks like when developing and implementing an effective enterprise portfolio management solution. In so doing the following aspects will be considered:
- Understanding organisational, senior executive and stakeholder requirements;
- Understanding technical and structural requirements;
- Organisational processes for project and program prioritization including alignment to strategic objectives and benefits alignment and management;
- Organisational resource and demand management processes;
- Data quality and integration challenges;
- Behavioural and process challenges;
- Risks and opportunities;
- Project and program assurance mechanisms; and
- Integrated reporting requirements and systems.
Mr Ciril Karo
Conference summary and the way forward
An overview of the proceedings of the last two days and the applicability of the learnings in CASG and the wider community.
Prof Dr Ralf Müller, DBA, MBA, PMP
Multi-level governance in inter-organizational project networks
Inter-organizational project networks are common in major programs involving governments and delivery partners working collaboratively. Management systems are typically designed as hybrid networks including hierarchical and non-hierarchical structures. This challenges traditional governance theories, which typically assume either a hierarchical or a network structure, but not a mix of it. However, for project execution all structural elements of the network need to be governed simultaneously.
Multi-level governance (MLG) theory integrates hierarchical (Type I) and non-hierarchical (Type II) network governance structures into an integrated theory framework. This framework allows applying existing governance theories to their respective parts of the network, and goes further by providing an interface to link and synchronize Type I and Type II governance through three governance entities. The presentation will address the concept of MLG and provide empirical examples of its application to hybrid structures and the three organizational entities which provide the link between Type I and Type II governance in network structures.
Mr Mark Purcell
The real-world importance of effective project governance and controls – a combined Defence and Defence industry perspective
As a senior Defence executive responsible for the Rizzo Reform program, Head of Navy Engineering and Head Maritime Systems Division, now retired Rear Admiral Mark Purcell RAN was the end user recipient of the project governance and controls reports and information reported to him from which very important decisions "of real-world consequence" to significant projects and programs were made.
Since retiring from the Royal Australian Navy, Mark has now had the opportunity to examine project governance and control systems from the Defence industry perspective.
Mark Purcell is very well placed to provide useful insights on what senior decision makers consider to be useful information from project governance and control systems, how that information is used to assist informed decision making and the consequences which can occur when useful project governance and controls information is not available to decision makers.
Mark has the rare capacity to be able to reflect on what is working well from an integrated Defence, and Defence industry perspective, what might be improved, as well as considering the impacts and benefits of the additional governance and controls requirements which have occurred post First Principles Review.
Mr Andrew Butt
Joint Confidence Levels – combining project control artefacts to inform decision making
You have a cost model, a project schedule and a great risk register, boxes ticked for sure, planning done, what's next? In this presentation I will guide you through my experiences of what happens when you combine these three basic project control artefacts using the Fully Integrated Cost Schedule Method. We will take a look at how it is done, consider some of the questions it might help you answer, and show you how it can be used to inform discussions around the probability of a project finishing both on time and within budget.
Mr Chris Carson, FRICS, FAACE, FGPC PSP, CEP, DRMP, CCM, PMP
The path from good project scheduling to implementing Advanced Work Packaging
Embracing Advanced Work Packaging (AWP) has been proven to improve field productivity, reduce installed cost, increase schedule performance, and increase predictability, however, fully integrating AWP can be difficult and expensive, and requires a contractual arrangement to fully embrace the changes necessary. But adapting to AWP can best be done in steps starting with schedule development and making the move to an AWP-oriented baseline schedule will provide a good return on the time investment. The structured process described in this session enables a good scheduler to lead the project team to develop the schedule ready to move into the next step of the process of implementing formal AWP.
AWP is a collaborative approach to project delivery, that aligns engineering, procurement, and construction; with a focus on early planning This presentation will offer an overview of Advanced Work Planning and Advanced Work Packaging (AWP) and how these concepts can be used to improve the baseline CPM schedule.
Dr Darrall Thompson and Mr Danny Carroll
Integrating capability development: alignment of staff and organisational goals using software
Many industries and government organisations face significant challenges in both recruitment and internal processes for integrating capability development. The benefits of aligning staff development and organisational goals require the ongoing application of assessment criteria that span both internal and external training, workshops and educational contexts.
ReViewTM software used at several large educational institutions applies capability-based frameworks at scale for educational assessment and capability development over time. Developed at the University of Technology Sydney the software has now become available to business and government for workforce capability development. This presentation will explore examples from high school and university contexts together with the methods for successful business and government implementation.
Dr Jan Drienko
Operational issues in workforce management and their fit within the broader strategies in light of new challenges in internal and external labour markets
We are entering a time of continuous change. Some changes are incremental to keep up with changes in work and the way work is delivered and some are more fundamental where work structures need to be transformed. Both create change for which we have to prepare in terms of the workforce but also in terms of organisational structures. The road towards more flexible ways of working is a complex one with many limitations, much resistance and all new processes. These conditions present tremendous opportunities to create a new evolution in our workforce to form a more future focused customised approaches to workforce management and support delivery of program outcomes.
Workforce management is currently focused on fulfilling specific requirements of delivering on projects and programs with the challenge of limited availability of highly specialised workforce and continually changing schedules. Under the future strategy of Plan, Govern and Assure in conjunction with goals of Australian Industry Capability (AIC) in addressing current and future program needs, a more rigorous approach is needed to develop plans to shape the current workforce, skills and specialisations to effectively meet future challenges.
We have designed and built an approach not only targeted at investigating impacts of policy changes (including current and future impacts of COVID), evaluating regional labour markets and their limitations, internal workforce structures and designing transition plans to address functional changes but also testing various models of engaging Australian industry and internal communications to support workers through future changes as well as implementing innovative approaches impacting social behaviours and improving workforce motivation.
We will uncover some of the most pressing operational issues in workforce management and their fit within the broader strategies in light of new challenges in internal and external labour markets.
Ms Meri Duncanson
Lets re-examine how Agile is EVM
Earned Value Management is a structured approach that provides the ability to forecast the future performance on a project, based on the past performance - using a systematic disciplined approach to integrate scope, schedule and costs into a measurable baseline.
Agile is an iterative approach to project management that helps teams deliver value to the customer faster and with fewer headaches. Agile teams deliver work in small increments so that project requirements, plans and results are evaluated continuously and the teams can respond to change quickly, rather than a 'big bang' delivery.
This presentation is an interactive re-examination on how Agile and EVM can work together to uplift project performance and boost project analysis and forecasting. Giving an overview of both Earned Value Management and Agile methodology and using real world examples and scenarios, showing how the two approaches to managing projects can be melded into an effective framework focused on delivering quality outcomes for both the customer and the business.
Mr Andrew Goodwin
An update on the significant developments in integrated project controls, EVM and project reporting within and external to CASG
Significant developments in integrated project controls and EVM have occurred both within CASG and externally following the 2015 First Principles Review of Defence. Within CASG significant updates have occurred including:
- Publication of the CASG Tiered EVM Implementation Policy
- Major update and publication of the CASG EVM Data Analysis Handbook
- CASG Integrated Baseline Review and EVM System Review Handbooks have been updated and combined into a single document
- Implementation of Project Performance Reviews (PPR) and the PPR Information Platform
- Major update to the CASG Project Controls Manual is in progress.
External to Defence the:
- ISO EVM standard 21508:2018 was published in 2018
- The ISO EVM Standard has been adopted with modification as the Australian EVM standard AS4817-2019
- The companion document to the ISO EVM Standard, ISO EVM Implementation Guide is currently under development.
From the unique perspective of Andrew Goodwin's long experience with EVM, this presentation will provide an overview of these various updates and changes. The focus will be on both the opportunities offered for improvements to practice and project delivery outcomes along with the challenges to be faced to achieve these benefits within CASG and more broadly to Defence industry.
LCDR Victoria Jnitova and GPCAPT Adrian Xavier
Measuring RAAF training system resilience using survey instrument
Military organisations must be capable of rapid change and adaptation in response to the challenges of preparing for and succeeding in a spectrum of agile environments that are only partially predictable. The ability of Defence capability systems to meet their requirements and continue to function in uncertain and often adverse circumstances is often associated with resilience, a non-functional capability system's requirement which is fast becoming an integral part of a system design effort and a desired system's characteristic.
Resilience Measuring Project
We conducted a case study to measure RAAF training systems' resilience in a selected RAAF unit using a survey tool. The survey is based on the original resilience framework and is supported by the automated reporting functionality.
In our presentation, we will introduce our original resilience framework, and how the Survey has been developed using this framework. The survey conduct, validation and results will also be discussed. We will conclude our presentation by outlining the study relevance and benefit to Defence, as well as proposing directions for future research.
In addition to RAAF piloting and management use, the RAN is baselining its entire training force with this resilience survey methodology before major reforms under Project VELA. Army has stated it has just reformed its training force using resilience objectives but not using this survey approach to control the changes. Their methodology and the utility of the now standardised survey for them to optimise/sustain that reform will be examined by the presenters in coming months with COL Cree. There is wide ADF interest. Also, there is nothing uniquely military in the approach (other than rigor) that would prevent other departments or corporations with internal training organisations benefiting substantially. Goes without saying, the academic rigor behind this endeavour is substantial:
Jnitova V; Joiner K; Efatmaneshnik M; Chang E, 2021, 'Modelling Workforce Employability Pipelines for Organisational Resilience', International Journal of Engineering Business Management, vol. 13, pp. 1 - 19, dx.doi.org/10.1177/18479790211004010
Jnitova V; Efatmaneshnik M; Joiner K; Chang E, 2021, 'Enhancing Enterprise Architecture with Resilience Perspective', Honolulu, presented at INCOSE International Symposium, Honolulu, 17 July 2021 - 22 July 2021
Chapter 10 to IEEE Book on Human Systems [the book Title TBC]: Improving Enterprise Resilience by Evaluating Training System Architecture: Method Selection for Australian Defence
Dr Yongjian Ke
Social media use in project management – an exploratory study of multiple transport projects
The research aims to explore the opportunities that social media could offer to project managers at different stages of transport projects. Multiple case studies is the research method. We chose to study CBD and South East Light Rail project and Sydney Metro Northwest project in Sydney, Australia and Chennai Metro Phase-1 in Chennai, India. We used Python and Twitter Search API to retrieve social media data on Twitter. A round of interviews is currently being conducted to understand how social media was used in the project management of those chosen projects.
The presentation will focus on how social media could provide an opportunity to evaluate benefits and public values qualitatively. In particular, two questions will be addressed: How will social media data help us to take into account and monitor public value creation and benefits realisations in infrastructure projects? And what are the barriers and opportunities for using social media data in project management? A following research plan and expected results will also be discussed.
Mr Walt Lipke
Earned Schedule – application of the To Complete Schedule Performance Index
A few years ago, a theoretical study was made of the To Complete Performance Index (TCPI) of Earned Value Management. The study concluded that when the TCPI value of 1.10 is exceeded the project is out of control and recovery is very unlikely. Recent analysis using real data has shown that the value 1.10 for TCPI and the To Complete Schedule Performance Index (TSPI) from Earned Schedule is a definitive and reliable performance threshold. This presentation describes the use of Earned Value Management/Earned Schedule project performance measures with the established threshold to compute the probability of cost and schedule recovery. Utilizing the computed probability, a schedule performance improvement strategy is discussed for achieving project recovery. The application of the recovery probability and strategy enhances the likelihood for having a successful project.
Mr Sandeep Mathur
Using Data Science Initiatives to deliver smart infrastructure and improve customer experience – a Transport for NSW case study
Transport NSW is currently delivering a $57.5billion investment in infrastructure and every investment has a large technology component. It is leveraging new technologies and data analytics to transition to transport of the future, and accelerate the benefits across passenger transport and freight networks. Data is increasingly ubiquitous in organizational life and Data Science Initiatives (DSIs) have emerged as a popular mechanism for extracting value from it. Artificial intelligence, machine learning and big data technologies are changing the face of the transport sector. They're driving greater efficiency, increasing productivity, and tracking benefits realisation. Customers have more options to personalise their journeys, and use real-time data to make informed decisions about when and how to travel. Customers have more connected and seamless end-to-end journeys, with more options for how they plan, book and pay for travel. This is underpinned by intelligent systems that use rich real-time data from smart sensors.
This presentation covers some use cases of how Transport for NSW is using data and Data Science Initiatives (DSIs) to deliver smart infrastructure and improve customer. It also covers how data is enabling better investment decisions specifically in Active Transport area to promote Walking & Cycling.
Dr Anh Pham-Waddell
Force Structure Plan 2020 costing methodology and outcomes
FSP20 has implemented a transformative process in costing that involves using a consistent methodology and costing tool that provides comprehensive cost assurance. The new parametric methodology for cost estimation and assurance aligns with First Principles Review that Defence needs to have cost estimation that factors in both acquisition and sustainment. This
methodology has the outcome of improved accuracy and completeness for total cost of ownership. In continuing the best practices of FSP20 it has significant strategic importance to Defence and its project portfolio.
Mr Patrick Weaver, PMP, PMI-SP, FAICD, FCIOB
The origins of Earned Value Management
The concept of using performance data to empirically predict project completion seems to be a remarkably recent innovation. Contracts with completion and cost deadlines can be traced back to the Roman Empire if not before (and for Roman contractors the term 'deadline' had a more explicit meaning that today), and measuring performance and paying for work accomplished was standard for cottage industry 'piecework' from the 15th century on. But while the function of measuring and paying for work done was standard, and contracts required delivery 'on-time' there does not seem to be any process for formalised planning and control until the 20th century.
Henry L Gantt used the number of rivets fixed to assess the percentage of a ship's structure complete during WW1, the total number of rivets were known from the design, the number fixed from the piecework pay records. The percentage calculated was a good approximation for the overall performance of the work. He used a similar concept in his Gantt Chart in the 1920s to compare actual to planned. Bur nowhere does this information get used to predict the likely completion. In parallel accountants could compare actual costs with budget, but lacked any process for estimating the final cost to complete. The use of formula to predict outcomes seems to be a development of the 1960s.
This presentation will trace the development of EVM from the foundations outlined above, through to ISO 21508, and then look at the still unanswered challenges of predicting time and cost outcomes accurately.
Ms Roksana Jahan Tumpa
Developing employability attributes of higher education project management graduates: a scoping review
Projects play a pivotal role in modern enterprises. Functional structures of organisations are being replaced by project-based organisations. Along with the growth in project management, the need for skilled project professionals is mounting for the successful execution of the projects. This reflects the importance of preparing project management graduates for complex project environments. Higher education institutions (HEIs) are responsible for preparing work-ready project management graduates so are responding by continually reviewing and developing effective project management courses. This scoping review focuses on how HEIs are addressing the employers' demand by preparing project management graduates for the industry.
Recent research on work-readiness of project management graduates adds valuable contribution to the literature, however, there is a lack of a rounded overview which focuses on how higher education institutions contribute to the development of employability attributes of project management graduates . Accordingly, this scoping review paper aims to explore the status quo of research on the employability of graduates within the context of project management education. More specifically, the study will capture and investigate the different approaches adopted by of higher education institutions in developing job-ready project management graduates. The paper contributes to the literature by providing insights into project management graduates' job-readiness in order to inform higher education institutions, policymakers and future research.
Ms Li Guan
Modeling risk interdependencies to support decision making in project risk management: analytical and simulation-based methods
Project risks are mostly considered to be independent, ignoring the interdependencies among them, which can lead to inappropriate risk assessment and reduced efficacy in risk treatment. The purpose of this research is to investigate how cause-effect relationships among project risks influence risk assessment results and to develop comprehensive network-based risk indicators which allow project managers to identify critical risks and risk interdependencies more effectively. This study establishes three analytical methods-based project risk assessment models, namely, a Fuzzy Bayesian Belief Network-based risk assessment model, an Interpretive Structural Modeling-MICMAC analysis-based risk assessment model, and a Social Network Analysis-based risk assessment model. In addition, one simulation-based project risk assessment model, i.e., the Monte Carlo Simulation-based risk interdependency network model, is developed to capture the stochastic behavior of project risk occurrence. Case studies are provided to illustrate the application of the proposed risk assessment models. The research findings highlight the importance of considering risk interdependencies in project risk assessment and verify the performance of the proposed models in practical use.
Mr Munir Ahmad Saeed
The role of benefits owner in effective Benefits Management
In the Project Management (PM) literature debates on Benefits Management (BM), the benefits owner has emerged as one of the key roles (Patanakul et al. 2016, Zwikael et al. 2019). However, there is still a visible lack of clarity in the PM literature and practice, as to who should be the benefits owner and what are the responsibilities of this role. The findings of a doctoral research on the applicability of BM in the Australian Public Sector organizations (PSOs), identified that the lack of clarity around benefits ownership and the benefits owner's role is seriously inhibiting benefits management in the case study organizations. This study also found that the poor benefits ownership is also directly linked to ineffective project/program governance, as the benefits owner plays important role as the Senior Responsible Officer (SRO) in project assurance and gate reviews. This paper would look at the role of the benefits owner in the PM literature, PM methodologies, impressions and observations of the PM practitioners in the PSOs and how this role can enhance benefits realization in the public sector.